ENGLISH STRUCTURE

MODUL
BAHASA INGGRIS 1

Setyoningsih

CHAPTER 1
ARTICLE

Study These Charts!
A /an or 0 (zero) for indefinite common nouns
Singular countable nouns

Plural countable nouns

Uncountable nouns

– A papaya is sweet
– An apple is round

– There is a papaya on the table.
– There is an apple in the refrigerator.

– Papaya are sweet.
– Apples are round

– I bought some papayas.
– He ate some papayas

– Milk is good for you.
– Water is vital in life

– There’s some water in the kitchen.
– I want some milk To make generalizations, a /an is used for singular countable nouns

To mention unspecified things, a/an is also used for singular countable nouns

To make generalizations, a /an is not used for plural countable nouns

To mention unspecified things, some is used for plural countable nouns

To make generalizations, a /an is not used for uncountable nouns

To mention unspecified things, some is used for plural uncountable nouns

The for definite common nouns:
Singular or plural, or uncountable
Singular, plural and uncountable nouns – There’s an apple on the table. The apple is red.
– There’s some bread on the table. The bread is stale

– The apples on the table are sweet.
– The water in the kitchen is dirty

– The sun is not shining
– I want to see the manager
The words mentioned for the second time have become definite; the is thus used

The words apple and water are specified by the phrases following them; the is thus used

The two words precede by the are clear and definite without being specifieed

EXPLANATION

1. a/an is called the indefinite article, while the is called the definite article. A is use before a consonant (sound, not letter) and an before a vowel (sound, not letter). The is used before any sound: a consonant or a vowel.
For example:
A man, a university; but an apple, an hour
An apple, an accident; but a sweet apple, a terrible accident.
The man, the university, the apple, the hour
2. a/an is used with singular common nouns which are not specifically identified. A common noun, also called a generic noun, represents a class or group of objects or thing.
For example:
Bob ate an apple.
The meaning of an here is similar to one. The speaker is not talking about this apple or that apple. He just eats one apple. The listener does not know which specific apple was eaten.

A is not used with plural nouns and uncountable nouns, such as water, milk, bread. Some may often be used instead.
For example:
Bob ate some apples. (also three, a lot of, a few apples, etc.)
John drank some milk. (Also a lot of, a little, a glass of milk, etc.)
3. a/an is also used for singular common nouns to make generalizations and it represents a whole class of objects.
For example:
An apple is not always sweet.
In this sentence, the speaker is talking about any apple or all apples in general. With the same meaning, we may also say
Apples are not always sweet (a/an is not used for plural nouns)
In the same grammatical context, i.e. to make generalizations, we do not use a/an for uncountable nouns.
For example:
Water is vital in our life.
Milk is expensive nowadays
4. The definite article the is used with nouns representing specific or familiar objects, persons, or incidents. The meaning of the here is similar to this, that, these or those.
For example:
There is an apple in the kitchen. The apple is sweet.
The milk in the refrigerator is still fresh.

The speaker uses the in the second sentence because the word apple has become specific or familiar to both the speaker and the listener. It has been mentioned in the first sentence, so the listener knows which apple the speaker is being talking about.
The speaker uses the for kitchen and refrigerator because both the speaker and the listener understand which kitchen and refrigerator the speaker is talking about. The two words are specific and familiar to them because there are only one kitchen and one refrigerator in the house.

The is used for milk because the word milk is made specific and familiar by the phrase in the refrigerator. Both the speaker and the listener understand which milk the speaker is talking about.

5. Almost all proper names do not use any article. There are only a few exceptions, such as the United States, the Philippines.
For example:
Obama is the new president of the United States.
Japan is the richest country in Asia.
Obama and Japan do not use any article because they are proper names. The United States is also a proper noun but it uses the definite article. It is exceptional.

EXERCISE

A. Fill in the blank with a/an or the

John king is …… reporter of …… well-known newspaper. He is ………new reporter. Last month, he wanted to rent …….furnished apartment in …… middle of … city. He wanted to live in ………… apartment near ……. office where he works.
He found ………. good one but the owner asked him to pay ………. thousand dollars as ………. deposit. He did not have enough money for ………… deposit, so he tried to get …… loan from …… bank where he had ……… account. However, he failed to get ………… loan he needed for ………… apartment. Therefore, he decided to find …… cheaper apartment, if necessary,……unfurnished one and not very close to …… office.
He found one near……….supermarket but it was ……. few miles from ……. office. ……. apartment was furnished and …………. owner was very friendly. However, almost everything was out of order, …… stove didn’t work properly. ……… water tap in ……… kitchen was leaky and needed …… plumbing job. …… water heater in ………… bathroom was …… old one and very noisy. …….door of ……… refrigerator could not be closed. …… sitting-room had………. good curtain but……… furniture was poor. Nevertheless, he was glad he had found ………… furnished apartment in …… city. He had to pay only ……… few hundred dollars as ……… deposit and …… monthly rent was quite cheap.

B. Fill in the blank with a/an or the
1. Bill bought …… shirt and …..pair of shoes yesterday. He is wearing …….new shirt and ……..new shoes now.
2. “Is ……. car still out of order now?”
“No, but it took me ……….. hour to repair ………. engine.”
3. “I don’t have any plan for the weekend.”
“Let’s have ……… picnic on Sunday.”
4. My wife wants ………. brand new car, Toyota or ……..Honda.
5. “Where is……… apple pie?”
“It’s in ……… kitchen.”
6. “……….car is not ………. elephant but it has ……. trunk.”
“Is that ……. joke or ……. riddle?”
7. “Do you know where my brown shirt is?”
“It’s in …….. washing-machine. You can wear ……. different shirt.”
8. …….. house they live in is very old. It’s ……… haunted house.
9. Jakarta is …….. big city. It’s ………. capital of Indonesia.
10. “I went to ……. movie last night.”
“What was……… name of …………. main actor?”

CHAPTER 2
NOUN

A noun is often defined as a word which names a person, place or thing.
Characteristics of Nouns
Many nouns can be recognized by their endings. Typical noun endings include:
-er/-or actor, painter, plumber, writer
-ism criticism, egotism, magnetism, vandalism
-ist artist, capitalist, journalist, scientist
-ment arrangement, development, establishment, government
-tion foundation, organisation, recognition, supposition

We can also recognize many nouns because they often have the, a, or an in front of them:
For example:
the car, an artist, a surprise , the egg , a review
These words are called determiners.
TYPES OF NOUNS
1. Proper Nouns
Nouns which name specific people or places are known as PROPER NOUNS.
For example:
John , Mary, London , France
Many names consist of more than one word:
John Wesley, Queen Mary, South Africa, Atlantic Ocean , Buckingham Palace
Proper nouns may also refer to times or to dates in the calendar:
January, February, Monday, Tuesday, Christmas, Thanksgiving
In short, the names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organizations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns.
You always write a proper noun with a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. It includes

a. Personal names (Mr. John Smith)
b. Names of geographic units such as countries, cities, rivers, etc. (Holland, Paris)
c. Names of nationalities (Thanksgiving Day)
d. Names of time units (Saturday, June)
e. Words used for personification – a thing or abstraction treated as a person (Nature, Liberty)
In each of the following sentences, the proper nouns are highlighted:
– The Marroons were transported from Jamaica and forced to build the fortifications in Halifax.
– Many people dread Monday mornings.
Since proper nouns usually refer to something or someone unique, they do not normally take plurals. However, they may do so, especially when number is being specifically referred to:
For example:
– There are three Davids in my class
– we met two Christmases ago
2. Common Nouns
A common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense — usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. The important thing to remember is that common nouns are general names. Thus, they are not capitalized unless they begin a sentence or are part of a title. Proper nouns, on the other hand, those that name specific things, do require capitalization. A common noun is the opposite of a proper noun. All other nouns are COMMON NOUNS.
Notice the difference in the chart below:
Common Noun Proper Noun
coffee shop
waiter
jeans
sandwich
chair
arena
country
fire fighter Starbucks
Simon
Levi’s
Big Mac
Roll-O-Rocker
Amway Arena
Australia
Captain Richard Orsini
Here are some sample sentences:
– Harriet threw the stale cucumber sandwich in the trash can and fantasized about a Big Mac dripping with special sauce.
Sandwich = common noun; Big Mac = proper noun.
– Because we like an attentive waiter, we always ask for Simon when we eat at Mama Rizzoni’s Pizzeria.
Waiter = common noun; Simon = proper noun.
In each of the following sentences, the common nouns are highlighted:
– According to the sign, the nearest town is 60 miles away.
– All the gardens in the neighbourhood were invaded by beetles this summer.

3. Concrete Nouns
A concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. In other words, a concrete noun is a word for a physical object that can be perceived by that senses – we can see, touch, smell the object (flower, girl). A concrete noun is the opposite of an abstract noun.
Concrete nouns can be countable nouns or uncountable nouns, and singular nouns or plural nouns.
Concrete nouns can also be a common noun, proper nouns and collective nouns.
Examples of Concrete Nouns
Common Concrete Nouns
dog, cat, girl, plate air, water etc.
Countable Concrete Nouns
singular -chair, computer, song, window
plural – chairs, computers, songs, windows
Uncountable Concrete Nouns
water, air, oil, sugar, salt, rice, cheese etc.
Proper Nouns
Mr. Mike Jones, Tom Brown, Audrey Ryan

The highlighted words in the following sentences are all concrete nouns:
– The judge handed the files to the clerk.
– Whenever they take the dog to the beach, it spends hours chasing waves.
4. Abstract Nouns
An abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not perceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun. An abstract noun is a word for a concept – it is an idea that exists in our minds only.
In short, abstract nouns are nouns that:
• Abstract nouns are any nouns that can’t be touched, tasted, seen, heard or smelt or felt.
• Abstract nouns usually represent feeling, ideas and qualities.
• Abstract nouns can be singular nouns and plural nouns.
• Abstract nouns can be countable or uncountable.
Examples of abstract nouns: love, hate, violence, culture, taste, beauty, justice
The highlighted words in the following sentences are all abstract nouns:
– Buying the fire extinguisher was an afterthought.
– Tillie is amused by people who are nostalgic about childhood.
5. Countable Nouns
A countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count. You can make a countable noun plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. A countable noun can usually be made plural by addition of –s (one girl, two girls).
singular Plural
Car Cars
Dog Dogs
House Houses

However, there are many irregular nouns which do not form the plural in this way:
Singular Plural
man men
child children
sheep sheep

6. Collective Nouns
A collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or persons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. In other words, a collective noun is a word for a group of people, animals or objects considered as a single unit. You need to be able to recognize collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun. Examples of collective nouns are audience, committee, class, crew, crowd…
In American English a collective noun used as subject usually takes a singular verb.
Example :
– The committee has decided to make some recommendations.
– The flock of geese spends most of its time in the pasture.
The collective noun “committee” and “flock” takes the singular verb “has decided” and “spends.
However, if attention is being drawn to the individual members of the unit, then a plural verb is used.
Example:
The committee have disagreed among themselves.
With some of these collective nouns, British usage prefers a plural verb.
For example:
The government (or the public) were asked to cooperate.
EXERCISES
A. Put into plural
1. An airport is a busy place
2. An apple grows on a tree
3. A writer writes a book
4. A fly is an insect
5. A dog hates a cat
B. Put into singular
1. Balls are toys
2. Cities are big towns
3. Roses are beautiful flowers
4. Novels are books
5. Schools are large buildings
C. Circle the nouns in the sentences below.
1. The boy washed his hands with soap.
2. Samantha was thinking about her little, brown dog.
3. Jen picked up her pencil and drew a picture on the yellow paper.
4. Adam ate two giant cookies after school.
5. Monica cleaned her entire bedroom from ceiling to floor.
6. Michael was outside playing catch with the football.
7. The window on the side of the house is open.
8. Nicole hears the rain falling on the sidewalk.
9. Can Max play with the kitten?
10. The old goose honked and walked around.
CHAPTER 3
PRONOUN

A pronoun is often defined as a word which can be used instead of a noun; a word that takes the place of a noun.
For example:
Instead of saying John is a student, the pronoun he can be used in place of the noun John and the sentence becomes He is a student.
We use pronouns very often, especially so that we do not have to keep on repeating a noun.
Study this chart
Subject pronoun Object pronoun Possessive adjective Possessive pronoun Reflexive pronoun S
PL
I
You
He
She
It

We
You
They Me
You
Him
Her
It

Us
You
Them My
Your
His
Her
Its

Our
Your
Their
Mine
Yours
His
Hers
…….

Ours
Yours
Theirs Myself
Yourself
Himself
Herself
Itself

Ourselves
Yourselves
themselves

S

PL

A. Personal pronouns
This kind of pronoun is called a personal pronoun because it often refers to a person. Like nouns, personal pronouns sometimes have singular and plural forms (I-we, he-they). Unlike nouns, personal pronouns sometimes have different forms for masculine/male, feminine/female and neuter (he-she-it). Also unlike nouns, personal pronouns have different forms depending on if they act as subjects or objects (he-him, she-her). A subject is a word which does an action and usually comes before the verb, and an object is a word that receives an action and usually comes after the verb.
For example:
In the sentence Yesterday Susan called her mother, Susan is the subject and mother is the object. The pronoun she can be used instead of Susan and the pronoun her can be used instead of mother.
B. Possessive Adjectives
The possessive adjectives of the personal pronouns as shown in the table above (my, your, his, etc) are always used as adjective first to modify some noun.
For example:
Tom is my brother
We like our English class

C. Possessive pronouns
There is also a possessive form of the pronoun. We use possessive pronouns to refer to a specific person/people or thing/things (the “antecedent”) belonging to a person/people (and sometimes belonging to an animal/animals or thing/things).
That is my father’s book to mean that is the book of my father, we can make the pronoun possessive and say That book is his.
We use possessive pronouns depending on:
• number: singular (eg: mine) or plural (eg: ours)
• person: 1st person (eg: mine), 2nd person (eg: yours) or 3rd person (eg: his)
• gender: male (his), female (hers)
Below are the possessive pronouns, followed by some example sentences. Notice that each possessive pronoun can:
• be subject or object
• refer to a singular or plural antecedent
number person gender (of “owner”) possessive pronouns
singular 1st male/female mine
2nd male/female yours
3rd Male his
female hers
plural 1st male/female ours
2nd male/female Yours
3rd male/female/neuter Theirs
Example:
• Look at these pictures. Mine is the big one. (subject = My picture)
• I like your flowers. Do you like mine? (object = my flowers)
• I looked everywhere for your key. I found John’s key but I couldn’t find yours. (object = your key)
• My flowers are dying. Yours are lovely. (subject = Your flowers)
• All the essays were good but his was the best. (subject = his essay)
• John found his passport but Mary couldn’t find hers. (object = her passport)
• John found his clothes but Mary couldn’t find hers. (object = her clothes)
• Here is your car. Ours is over there, where we left it. (subject = Our car)
• Your photos are good. Ours are terrible. (subject = Our photos)
• Each couple’s books are colour-coded. Yours are red. (subject = Your books)
• I don’t like this family’s garden but I like yours. (subject = your garden)
• These aren’t John and Mary’s children. Theirs have black hair. (subject = Their children)
• John and Mary don’t like your car. Do you like theirs? (object = their car)
D. Reflexive pronouns
The reflexive pronoun as shown on the table include myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves and themselves. In general the reflexive pronouns are used in English in two ways : reflexively and emphatically.

Reflexive use:
He looked at himself in the mirror.
Susan taught herself to sew
You are not yourself today
Thus, the reflexive pronoun is used reflexively to refer back to the subject or some earlier void in the sentence.

Emphatic use:
Tom himself will finish the painting
She herself will cook the meal
I myself can do it
Reflexive pronoun used emphatically gives emphasis to some person or thing mentioned in the sentence.

Reflexive pronoun are also used together with the preposition by to give the meaning of “alone” or “without help”.
Examples:
She leaves by herself in a furnished room
My son prefers to study by himself

EXERCISES
A. Choose the right pronoun:
1. We’re much stronger than (they/them) at football.
2. Just between you and (me/I), it’s (him/he) I’m afraid of, not (she/her).
3. Let (we/us) all go for a walk except (she/her), since (she/her) is so tired.
4. I know you’re bigger than (I /me), in fact you’re bigger than (we/us) both, but we’re not afraid of you.
5. You’re as tall as (I /me), so you can easily ride my bike, but you’re much fatter than either (I/me) or my brother, so we can’t lend you a sports jacket.
6. Do you think (he/him) is stronger than (I /me)?
7. How can you talk to a woman such as (she/her)
8. It’s only (we/us): (I/me) and my friend Maisie!
9. Which is your friend Cyril? What (he/him)! I thought he was a big chap like (I/me)
10. Help (I/me) carry (she/her); (she/her) has fainted.

B. Fill in the blanks with suitable pronouns.
1. Does _____ (her, she) know that _____ (me, I) was absent?
2. Please tell _____ ( he, him) _____ (I, me) have obtained a degree in Chemistry.
3. I remember that _____ (they, them) bought the fruits from _____ (we, us).
4. Please don’t tell ______ (she, her) about _____ (I, me).
5. _____ can swim because _____ has webbed feet.
6. I met Alice yesterday. _____ invited _____ to her house.
7. Jane has a cat; _____ likes to play with _____.
8. When the dog chased John, _____ ran as fast as _____ could.
9. My uncle works in a factory. _____ says _____ is a noisy place.
10. The teacher said to the class, “When _____ finished your work, please pass _____ up to me.”

C. Use the Correct Form of the Pronoun in Parentheses
1. The money was given to (he)…….and (I)…….
2. Their mother is taking (they)…….. to the market.
3. Everyone finished the test except (I)………
4. All of (they)………come late.
5. My sister and (I)…………are arriving on the early train.
6. (We) ……………children were spoiled by our parents.
7. Between (you) ……..and (I)……., she’s not very happy in her new home.
8. It was (I)…………who planned this meeting.
9. Who’s at the door? It’s (I)……..
10. They wanted only Robert and (you)….

D. Type the correct form of the reflexive pronoun for each sentence.
1. Look! There’s a little bird washing ________ in the river.
2. Welcome to the party, everyone! Just help ________ to sandwiches and snacks.
3. I’ll have to help Young Hee fill in her form, but Ja Young can do it ________, because her English is excellent.
4. Can I ask you a question, Sami? Did you go to classes to learn German, or did you teach ________?
5. At 12.30, Junko and I went to the cafeteria to buy ________ some lunch.
6. Jody and her husband own their own company, so they can give ________ a holiday any time they like.
7. John hurt ________ while he was fixing his car.
8. When I saw ________ in the mirror, I was horrified — there was red paint on my nose!

CHAPTER 4
ADJECTIVES

An adjective is the part of speech that modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. It is often defined as a word which describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun. It usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. In other words, it is placed just before the words they qualify. In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives:
– The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea.
– The coal mines are dark and dank.
– A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard.
– The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots.
An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clause functioning as an adverb. For the example, in the sentence ‘my husband knits intricately patterned mittens’, the adverb “intricately” modifies the adjective “patterned.”

TYPES OF ADJECTIVES
1. Determiners
Determiner consists of a small group of structure words without characteristic form.
a. Articles : the, a, an
b. Demonstratives adjectives : this, plural these
That, plural those
c. Possessive adjective
– From pronouns –my, your, one’s, etc
– From nouns – John’s, the girl’s, etc
d. Numeral adjectives
– Cardinal – four, twenty-five, etc
– Ordinal –fourth, twenty fourth, etc
e. Adjectives of indefinite quantity – some, few, all, more, etc
f. Relative and interrogative adjectives – whose, what, which, etc
All of these determiners except the articles and the possessive adjectives of the personal pronouns may function as pronouns when not followed by nouns. Personal pronouns have separate forms for the possessive used without a noun – my (adjective) book vs the book is mine ( pronoun)

2. Descriptive adjectives
Descriptive adjective usually indicate an inherent quality (beautiful, intelligent), or a physical state such as age, size, color. Inflectional and derivational endings can be added only to this type of adjective.
Some descriptive adjectives take the form of:
1. Proper adjectives – a French dish, a Shakespearian play
2. Participial adjectives
a. Present participle – an interesting book, a disappointing experience, a charming prince
b. Past participle – a bored teacher, a tired doctor
3. Adjective compounds
a. With participle
(1) Present participle – a good-looking man, a heart-breaking story, an English-speaking teacher
(2) Past participle – a turned-up nose, a broken-down house
b. With –ed added to nouns functioning as the second element of a compound. The first element is usually a short adjective – absent-minded, bad-tempered.
Such compounds are especially common with nouns that denote parts of the body.
For example: right-handed, kind-hearted, brown-eyed
The Order of Adjectives in a Series
It would take a linguistic philosopher to explain why we say “little brown house” and not “brown little house” or why we say “red Italian sports car” and not “Italian red sports car.” The order in which adjectives in a series sort themselves out is perplexing for people learning English as a second language. Most other languages dictate a similar order, but not necessarily the same order. It takes a lot of practice with a language before this order becomes instinctive, because the order often seems quite arbitrary (if not downright capricious). There is, however, a pattern. You will find many exceptions to the pattern in the table below, but it is definitely important to learn the pattern of adjective order if it is not part of what you naturally bring to the language.
The categories in the following table can be described as follows:
I. Determiners — articles and other limiters.
II. Observation — post determiners and limiter adjectives (e.g., a real hero, a perfect idiot) and adjectives subject to subjective measure (e.g., beautiful, interesting)
III. Size and Shape — adjectives subject to objective measure (e.g., wealthy, large, round)
IV. Age — adjectives denoting age (e.g., young, old, new, ancient)
V. Color — adjectives denoting color (e.g., red, black, pale)
VI. Origin — denominal adjectives denoting source of noun (e.g., French, American, Canadian)
VII. Material — denominal adjectives denoting what something is made of (e.g., woolen, metallic, wooden)
VIII. Qualifier — final limiter, often regarded as part of the noun (e.g., rocking chair, hunting cabin, passenger car, book cover)
For example
– A beautiful old Italian car
– Her short black hair
– Some delicious Thai food
– An expensive antique silver mirror

Degrees of Adjectives
The degrees of comparison are known as the positive, the comparative, and the superlative. (Actually, only the comparative and superlative show degrees.) We use the comparative for comparing two things and the superlative for comparing three or more things. Notice that the word than frequently accompanies the comparative and the word the precedes the superlative. The inflected suffixes -er and -est suffice to form most comparatives and superlatives, although we need -ier and -iest when a two-syllable adjective ends in y (happier and happiest); otherwise we use more and most when an adjective has more than one syllable.
Positive Comparative Superlative
rich richer richest
lovely lovelier loveliest
beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
Certain adjectives have irregular forms in the comparative and superlative degrees:
Irregular Comparative and Superlative Forms
good better Best
bad worse Worst
little less Least
much
many
some more Most
far further Furthest

For example:
1. The girl is as beautiful as Susan. (Positive)
2. Susan is more beautiful than Lisa (Comparative)
3. Susan is the most beautiful girl in the class (Superlative)

EXERCISE

A. Circle the adjective in each sentence. Draw a line under the noun it describes.
Example: Jason painted a beautiful picture.

1. Four turtles climbed on the log.
2. Mr. Henderson’s oldest son goes to college.
3. There is a squirrel on our front porch.
4. We sat beneath a shady umbrella.
5. Sally picked up sixteen rocks when she walked by the creek.
6. Have you seen my checkered shirt?
7. A sidewalk leads to the back door.
8. The jacket I bought has deep pockets.
9. Polly fixed the broken car.
10. How do my new glasses look?
11. Jay and Kay live in the biggest house on the block.
12. Huge trees grow along the street.

B. Possessive Pronouns and Adjectives
Choose the correct word for each space.
1. My telephone is out of order, but ________ is working.
a. your
b. our
c. his
d. their
2. Junko has eaten her lunch already, but I’m saving ________ until later.
a. hers
b. her
c. my
d. mine
3. These grammar books are different. ________ has 278 pages, but ________ has only 275.
a. Yours, mine
b. Your, my
c. Yours, my
d. Your, mine
4. This bird has broken ________ wing.
a. it’s
b. its’
c. hers
d. its
5. ________ pencil is broken. Can I borrow ________?
a. Mine, yours
b. Your, mine
c. My, yours
d. Yours, mine
6. You can’t have any chocolate! It’s ________!
a. your
b. its
c. her
d. mine
7. We gave them ________ telephone number, and they gave us ________.
a. ours, their
b. our, their
c. ours, theirs
d. our, theirs
8. Jody has lost ________ book.
a. mine
b. her
c. hers
d. theirs
9. ________ computer is a Mac, but ________ is a PC.
a. Your, mine
b. Yours, mine
c. Your, my
d. Yours, my
10. Was ________ grammar book expensive?
a. your
b. yours
c. your’s
d. You

C. Complete the sentences with the words in the word list below.
her hers his His my our ours their

The Mysterious Volkswagen
Last week, we had a party at ….. house. Many people came, and there were lots of cars parked outside. At the end of the party, only three people were left: myself, Eric, and Cathy. However, there were four cars. One of them was a Volkswagen. I didn’t remember seeing it before, so I asked whose it was.

Eric said it wasn’t ……….car. ……… is a Chevrolet pickup. When I asked Cathy if it was …….., she said no —……..car is a Ford Explorer. I knew it wasn’t ………car, of course. Finally, I called the police, and they came and examined it. They said it belonged to a family on the next street. Someone stole it from……..street and left it on…….

CHAPTER 5
ADVERB

An adverb is a part of speech that modifies any other part of language: verbs, adjectives (including numbers), clauses, sentences and other adverbs, except for nouns; modifiers of nouns are primarily determiners and adjectives. In other words, an adverb is usually defined as a word that gives more information about a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives and adverbs in terms of such qualities as time, frequency and manner. Adverbs typically answer questions such as how? (or in what way?), when?, where?, why? and to what extent?

THE FIVE TYPES OF ADVERBS
1. ADVERBS OF MANNER –
Adverbs of manner provide information on how someone does something; these answer the question how? This adverb usually comes after the direct object or if there is no direct object, after the verb:
For example:
She speaks Italian beautifully.
He works well.
You must drive your car carefully.
Eat quietly.
2. ADVERBS OF PLACE –
These answer the question where? This adverb usually comes after the object, otherwise after the verb:
For example:
We saw you there.
We were sitting here.
We looked everywhere.
Note: somewhere, anywhere, follow the same rules as some and any:
Have you seen my glasses anywhere?
I’m sure I left them somewhere.
I can’t find them anywhere.
3. ADVERBS OF TIME
Adverbs of time provide information on when something happens.
These answer the question when? This adverb usually comes either at the very beginning of the sentence or at the end.

For example:
Afterwards we decided to go by car. I’ve done that journey before.
We’ll let you know our decision next week.
Note: yet and still:
Yet should be placed at the end of the sentence.
Still should be placed before the verb, except with the verb ‘to be’ when it comes after.
For example:
We haven’t started yet.
He still wears old-fashioned clothes.
She is still a student.
Compare these two sentences:
The train still hasn’t arrived.
The train hasn’t arrived yet.

4. ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY –
Adverbs of frequency provide information on how often something happens; these answer the question how many times?
Adverb Sentence Placement
This adverb comes after the verb ‘to be’:
She is always honest.
Comes before simple tenses of all other verbs:
They sometimes spend the whole of Saturday fishing.
Comes after the first auxiliary in a tense consisting of more than one verb:
I have often wondered how they did that.
I can sometimes go without food for days.
Note: with ‘used to’ and ‘have’ the frequency adverb is usually placed in front:
We always used to look forward to the school holidays.
He never has any trouble with his old car.
5. ADVERBS OF DEGREE –
Adverbs of degree provide information concerning how much of something is done; these answer the question to what extent? This adverb can modify an adverb or an adjective and comes before the word it modifies:
For example:
The bottle is almost full, nearly empty.
They should be able to pass their exams quite easily.
The following adverbs of degree can also modify verbs:
almost, nearly, quite, hardly, scarcely, barely, just
They follow the same pattern as frequency adverbs in terms of where they are placed:
For example:
I quite understand.
We had almost reached the hut when the rain started.
I am just beginning a new course.
Adverb Formation
a. Adverbs are usually formed by adding ‘-ly’ to an adjective.
For example: quiet – quietly, careful – carefully, careless – carelessly
b. Adjectives ending in ‘-le’ change to ‘-ly’.
For example: possible – possibly, probable – probably, incredible – incredibly
c. Adjectives ending in ‘-y’ change to ‘-ily’.
For example: lucky – luckily, happy – happily, angry – angrily
d. Adjectives ending in ‘-ic’ change to ‘-ically’.
For example: basic – basically, ironic – ironically, scientific – scientifically Some adjectives are irregular. The most common irregular adverbs are: good – well, hard – hard, fast -fast
Adverb Sentence Placement
Adverbs of Time: Adverbs of time are placed after the verb or entire expression (at the end of the sentence).
For example: She visited her friends last year.
Important Exceptions to Adverb Placement
Some adverbs are placed at the beginning of a sentence to provide more emphasis.
For example: Now you tell me you can’t come!
Adverbs of frequency are placed after the verb ‘to be’ when used as the main verb of the sentence.
For example: Jack is often late for work.
Some adverbs of frequency (sometimes, usually, normally) are also placed at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis.
For example: Sometimes I visit my friends in London.
In English, they often end in -ly.

EXERCISE
A. Choose the Most Suitable Adverb in Bold to Fill each Blank:
angrily, enough, never, outside, yesterday
1. She left _____ for the university where she is doing a degree course.
2. We are standing _____ his house waiting for him.
3. He told us _____ not to walk on the grass.
4. I am not strong _____ to help him carry that box.
5. She will _____ be happy in that job.
down, last week, often, quickly, rarely
6. _____, I saw him walking to the church.
7. My father is _____ late for work.
8. He drove _____ to avoid being late.
9. I _____ play badminton with my sister.
10. This is the place where he fell _____.
always, just, nearly, online, unusually
11. It took _____ two hours to get here.
12. They were _____ very friendly.
13. He has _____ strong hands.
14. She has _____ completed her degree course.
15. This dictionary went _____ in 2003.

B. Find the adjective in the first sentence and fill the gap with the adverb.
1. Joanne is happy. She smiles happily.
2. The boy is loud. He shouts………..
3. Her English is fluent. She speaks English……………
4. Our mum was angry. She spoke to us………….
5. My neighbor is a careless driver. He drives…………..
6. The painter is awful. He paints……………
7. Jim is a wonderful piano player. He plays the piano……….
8. This girl is very quiet. She often sneaks out of the house………
9. She is a good dancer. She dances really………………..
10. This exercise is simple. You…………..have to put one word in each space.

CHAPTER 6
VERB

A verb is often defined as a word which expresses action or state of being. The verb is the heart of a sentence- every sentence must have a verb. Recognizing the verb is often the most important step in understanding the meaning of a sentence since it is an essential part of a complete sentence.
For example:
In the sentence the dog bit the man, bit is the verb and the word which shows the action of a sentence.
In the sentence the man is sitting on a chair, even though the action doesn’t show much activity, sitting is the verb of the sentence.
In the sentence she is a smart girl, there is no action but a state of being expressed by the verb is. The word be is different from other verbs in many ways but can still be thought of as a verb.

TYPES OF VERB
There are three types of verbs: action verbs, linking verbs, and helping verbs.
1. Action verbs
Action verbs are words that express action (ex: give, eat, walk, etc.) or possession (have, own, etc.). Action verbs can be either transitive or intransitive.
a. Transitive verbs
A transitive verb always has a noun that receives the action of the verb. This noun is called the direct object. Some examples are throw, buy, hit, love. EXAMPLE: Laurissa raises her hand.
(The verb is raises. Her hand is an object receiving the verb’s action. Therefore, raises is a transitive verb.)
Transitive verbs sometimes have indirect objects, which name the object to whom or for whom the action was done.
EXAMPLE: Jantzen gave Becky the pencil.
(The verb is gave. The direct object is the pencil. [What did he give? the pencil]. The indirect object is Becky. [To whom did he give it? to Becky.])
Only transitive verbs may be used in the passive voice.
b. Intransitive verbs
An intransitive verb never has a direct or indirect object. It has no object or does not require an object and some examples are go, come, walk, listen. Although an intransitive verb may be followed by an adverb or adverbial phrase, there is no object to receive its action.
EXAMPLE: Laurissa rises slowly from her seat.
(The verb is the word, rises. The words, slowly from her seat, modify the verb. But there is no object that receives the action.)
2. Linking Verbs
A linking verb connects the subject of a sentence to a noun or adjective that renames or describes it. This noun or adjective is called the subject complement.
EXAMPLES:
a. Jason became a business major.
(The verb, became, links the subject, Jason, to its complement, a business major.)
b. Lisa is in love with Jason.
(The verb, is, links the subject, Lisa, to the subject complement, in love with Jason, which describes Lisa.)
The most common linking verb is the verb to be in all of its forms (am, are, is, was, were, etc.). This verb may also be used as a helping verb (see next section). Two other common linking verbs, to become and to seem, are always used as linking verbs. Other verbs may be linking verbs in some cases and action verbs in others:
to appear, to feel, to look, to remain, to stay, to taste, to continue, to grow, to prove, to sound, to smell, to turn
LINKING: Libby appeared happy. (Appeared links Libby to the subject complement, happy.)
ACTION: Deon suddenly appeared. (Here, appeared is an intransitive action verb.)
3. Helping or Auxiliary Verbs
Helping verbs are used before action or linking verbs to convey additional information regarding aspects of possibility (can, could, etc.) or time (was, did, has, etc.). They are also called auxiliary verbs. The main verb with its accompanying helping verb is called a verb phrase.

EXAMPLES:
a. Teju is (helping verb) going (main verb) to Florida.
b. The trip might (helping verb) be (main verb) dangerous.
The following words, called modals, always function as helping verbs:
Can, may, must, shall, will, could, might, ought to, should, would,

EXAMPLES:
a. Tanya could learn to fly helicopters. (Could helps the main verb, learn.)
b. Janine will drive to Idaho tomorrow. (Will helps the main verb, drive.)
In addition, the following forms of the verbs to be, to do, and to have sometimes serve as helping verbs. (Note: In other cases, they may serve as action or linking verbs.)
Am, be, being, do, had, have, was, are, been, did, does, has, is, were
EXAMPLE:
– HELPING: Jana is moving to a new house.
– LINKING: Jana is ready to go.
– HELPING: Dustin did eat his vegetables!
– ACTION: Dustin did his homework last night. (transitive verb)
– HELPING: Erin has jumped off the cliff.
– ACTION: Erin has a good attitude. (transitive verb)
One of the most important things about verbs is their relationship to time. Verbs tell if something has already happened, if it will happen later, or if it is happening now. For things happening now, we use the present tense of a verb; for something that has already happened, we use the past tense; and for something that will happen later, we use the future tense.
Some examples of the verbs in each tense are in the chart below:
Present past Future
Look Looked Will look
Move Moved Will move
Talk Talked Will talk

Verbs like those in the chart above that form the past tense by adding –d or –ed are called regular verbs. Some of the most common verbs are not regular and the different forms of the verb must be learned. Some examples of such irregular verbs are in the chart below:
Present past Future
See saw Will see
Hear heard Will hear
Speak spoke Will speak

The charts above show the simple tenses of the verbs. There are also progressive or continuous forms which show that the action takes place over a period of time, and perfect forms which show completion of the action. A few examples are given in the chart below:
Present continuous Present perfect
Is looking Has looked
Is speaking Has spoke
Is listening Has listened

EXERCISE
A. Directions: Circle the correct words in parenthesis below.
1. The fat duck ate a fish.
The word fat describes ( the duck / the fish ).
Duck is a ( noun / verb ).
Fat is an ( adjective / adverb ).
2. The boy yells louder than anyone else.
The word louder describes ( how the boy yells / the boy ).
The word yells is a ( noun / verb ).
Louder is an ( adjective / adverb ).
3. We ate the hot soup.
The word hot describes (the soup / how we ate the soup ).
The word soup is a ( noun / verb ).
Hot is an ( adjective / adverb ).
4. Grandpa walked slowly to the garage.
The word slowly describes (grandpa / how grandpa walked ).
The word walked is a ( noun / verb ).
Slowly is an ( adjective / adverb ).
5. Marla patiently waited her turn.
The word patiently describes (how Marla waited / Marla ).
The word waited is a ( noun / verb ).
Patiently is an ( adjective / adverb ).

B. Underline the verb in each sentence and indicate whether it is an action verb (AV), a linking verb (LV) or an auxiliary verb (AUX V) by writing the appropriate letter next to the sentence.
1. We ate lunch around 2 p.m. yesterday.
2. I may apply for a job at Best Buy in Victoria Mall.
3. I am anxious to finish the research project.
4. The ducks were swimming in the pond during our picnic.
5. The weather has been hot and dry all summer.
6. I went to the beach on Tuesday afternoon and played volleyball.
7. I can finish that essay exam before I go to the movies.
8. I should bake the cake for Mom’s birthday.
9. We have been ill all weekend.
10. The dogs tore open the trash bags and messed up the house.

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